Wednesday 21 January 2009
Keep the rain at bay with this impressive stand by Nick Arnull
1.The finished umbrella stand (PHOTOGRAPHS BY JANE ARNULL)
An interesting commission recently came into my workshop for an umbrella stand, a project that had never been on my list of ideas to make. Some research was required so I went to my usual source, the Internet, to look for traditional design ideas.
Unfortunately, all I could find were numerous bin-type designs so I had to create the design from scratch. This took some time but the appearance I wanted to achieve was to be something similar to a classical column.
I had no idea how large this project would be as I rarely make furniture. I predicted four spindles, four bun feet, a base and a top ring…that can't be too hard! I chose to use sapele for this project and was going to stain it. Once sanded, the grain would be raised using water and allowed to dry naturally then re-sanded to 240 grit.
The stand here is my final design which could grace any traditional hallway and of course, hopefully meet the customer's commission.
Glossary Rollover a term to view its definition
- Bowl Gouge
A cutting tool with a deep flute and a heavy cross-section. These are normally made from round bars and the flute is milled out. The round bar fits into the handle thus giving the tool a great deal of strength to enable it to overhang the toolrest a long way in order to hollow out deep bowls. Its primary function is for faceplate - or bowl turning - but it can also be used in spindle work. The bevel angle is ground to suit the user but is anything between 40 degrees and 80 degrees. Traditionally, bowl gouges are ground straight across, but many turners prefer to grind the wings back. There are many terms for a swept back bowl gouge - fingernail grind, O'Donnell grind, Irish grind, Ellsworth grind, lady's finger - to name a few. There may be subtle differences in these grinds, but generically they are all bowl gouge grinds where the wings have been ground back.
- Parting Tool
As the picture shows, there are several different types of parting tool - three of which are shown here. On the left is a narrow (3mm) parting tool which is very useful when parting work where the least amount of grain mismatch is desirable, for example when parting the lid from the base in box making. The middle tool is a straight sided, standard parting tool and the one on the right is a diamond parting tool where the widest part of the tool is at the cutting edge. This can be advantageous when cutting deep grooves because it means less of the tool is rubbing on the sides of the groove. Parting tools primary task is to part wood off in spindle work but they are also used to cut tenons or spigots and grooves. They can also be used to cut beads.
- Spindle Gouge
Modern day spindle gouges are made in the same way as bowl gouges - from a round bar of M2 high speed steel with the flute milled out. The flute is shallower and more open than that of a bowl gouge. Traditionally spindles gouges were forged from a flat, rectangular sectioned bar and some manufacturers have started making a modern day version of this, commonly known as the Continental Style spindle gouge.
Like their name suggests, spindle gouges are used to cut details such as beads, coves and fillets on spindle work.
- Drill Press
For accurate perpendicular drilling the drill press cannot be bettered. The speeds can usually be changed via a belt change in the top case of the machine. Drill bits including very large diameter cutters such as forstner bits which may not have a 'centre' can be fitted in the chuck, these days there are keyless versions as well as the traditional keyed version. An adjustable drill table which can move up and down is used to place the workpiece under the drill for machining. There is always a depth stop feature so the depth of drilled holes can be set precisely.
- Reverse Chucking
The process of turning a part finished bowl or hollow form around and re-gripping it to allow access to the other end. This is often done in order to turn away the chucking spigot or recess and to finish off the piece. This can be achieved in several ways
Spindles x 4 - 40mm (1 5/8in) x 660mm (26in)
The base x 1 - 320mm (12 5/8in) x 80mm (3 1/8in)
The top ring x 1 - 310mm (12 1/4in) x 55mm (2 1/4in)
Bun feet x 2 (two feet from each length) - 100mm (4in) x 50mm (2in)
- Be warned: the wood must be sound or injury will occur. It is also advisable to run the lathe a little slower as heat is generated as the wood goes round
- When turning the spindles, make full hand contact with the wood only when round. This adds support to the rear of the piece as spindles could bounce and not allow the cut to be made cleanly
Diagrams Click an image to enlarge